"How clean does a cleaned-up storyboard have to be?"
'Framing' can be used within the composition of a shot to help you highlight your main point of interest in the image and and/or to put it in context to give the image some depth.
It also applies in filmmaking:
The perspective that a shot is taken from is another element that can have a big impact upon an image.
Shooting from up high and looking down on a subject or shooting from below looking up on the same subject drastically affects not only the 'look' of the image, emphasizing different points of interest, angles, textures, shapes etc - but it also impacts the 'story' of an image.
There can be a fine line between filling your frame with your subject (and creating a nice sense of intimacy and connection) and also giving your subject space to breath.
Focus on the good stuff. Don't include too much. Extra elements can confuse things. Strengthen your subject by eliminating all unimportant components and background clutter. Either technique can be effective - so experiment with moving in close and personal and moving out to capture a subject in its context.
Sometimes it is what you leave out of an image that makes it special.
The positioning with elements in a frame can leave an image feeling balanced or unbalanced.
Find your balance. Off-center subjects can be balanced on the opposite side of the frame with leading lines, shadows, and objects in the foreground or background. Balance can also be achieved by creating simple geometric shapes. This makes images naturally easier to decipher and more pleasing to the eye. These photos below are a good example of subjects creating a triangular shape (more on this technique later), which brings strong balance and unity to the image.
It is applied in illustration also:
The colors in an image and how they are arranged can make or break a shot.
Bright colors can add vibrancy, energy and interest - however in the wrong position they can also distract viewers of an image away from focal points.
Colors also greatly impact 'mood'. Blues and Greens can have a calming soothing impact, Reds and Yellows can convey vibrancy and energy.
There are patterns all around us if we only learn to see them. Emphasizing and highlighting these patterns can lead to striking shots - as can highlighting ts elemenwhen patterns are broken.
Depending upon the scene - symmetry can be something to go for - or to avoid completely.
A symmetrical shot with strong composition and a good point of interest can lead to a striking image - but without the strong point of interest it can be a little predictable. Mostly, you should experiment with both in the one shoot to see which works best.
Images are two dimensional things yet with the clever use of 'texture' they can come alive and become more three dimensional.
Texture particularly comes into play when light hits objects at interesting angles.
The depth of field that you select when taking an image will drastically impact the composition of an image.
It can isolate a subject from its background and foreground (when using a shallow depth of field) or it can put the same subject in context by revealing it's surroundings with a larger depth of field.
It is applied in filmmaking also:
Lines can be powerful elements in an image.
They have the power to draw the eye to key focal points in a shot and to impact the 'feel' of an image greatly. Diagonal, Horizontal, Vertical, and Converging lines all affect images differently and should be spotted while framing a shot and then utilized to strengthen it.
The key is to remember that in the same way a chef rarely uses all the ingredients at their disposal in any dish - that a filmmaker, photographer (as well as any illustrator of storyboard artist) rarely uses all of the ingredients of composition in the making of an image.
One of the best bits of advice I ever received was, "stage a scene based on the widest action." It's usually not necessary to zoom in super close on the characters... it's nice to leave some breathing room. This allows for nice negative shapes around the characters, and allows you to draw the key players and props with easily-readable silhouettes.
A common mistake of less experienced storyboard artists is framing their shots too tightly. Even a close-up should have a bit of breathing room, unless it is the rare occasion of an extreme close-up. This also has to do with pacing... it's best to save those high-impact shots were the moments in the story that have the greatest impact. If a storyboard artist were to fill their board from start to finish with lots of crazy angles, fancy camera moves and extreme close-ups, it would leave no room for the artist to show any real impact when it's really needed. It's all about contrast.
That may mean that the shot is very wide -- for example: if I need to show somebody driving a car around the corner, the shot needs to be wide enough to see all of that action. If I'm trying to show a guy sitting in a restaurant drinking a cup of coffee, I would want the framing to include just the guy, the table, and the cup of coffee.
|Cut from Gerald talking on a radio microphone to the broadcast tower, spreading his message across town.|
It's all about how important the specific action is to a scene. If the man at the coffee shop is putting a couple of creams in his coffee, there is no need to make a special emphasis on that action; so I would not cut in closer on him pouring in the cream. But... if somebody was putting poison into his coffee cup, that's a perfect time to cut in on that action for emphasis.
|Cut from Grandpa sitting in car to a close-up of him turning on the radio|
Factors to always remember when you are first planning your shots:
To hold the attention of the viewer, give your pictures a bold and dramatic arrangement. Avoid putting your subject directly in the center of the picture unless you are striving for a formal arrangement in which the subject firmly commands attention.
Move it from the middle:
One of the most common mistakes of amateur photographers is placing the subject smack dab in the middle of the frame. This makes a picture more static and less interesting. That's why one of the most popular guidelines in photography, painting and cinematography is the Rule of Thirds.
Imagine a tic-tac-toe board over your viewfinder and position the subject along one of the lines or at one of the intersections. If your subject fills most of the frame, position a focal point at one of the intersections.
With landscapes, keep the horizon along the lower third to give a feeling of spaciousness. Position the horizon along the upper third to give a feeling of nearness or intimacy.
Lines That Lead
Lines are everywhere around us. In people, trees, walls, shadows-you just have to look for them. These natural lines can strengthen composition by leading the viewer's eyes toward your subject. Diagonal lines can add energy. Curved lines can add soft elegance. Using a road or path as a leading line can add depth.
For Converging Lines: Interest at the point of convergence is the purpose, experiment with the positioning of your subject and your point of view to create a center of focus.
In simple terms, the Rules of Thirds states that there are certain "hotspots" - areas of intensity that exist within any given image, and if one were to align the subject within the range of influence of these hotspots, it will make for a more energetic and interesting composition. The image above illustrates the rule; the 4 "hotspots" where the red lines intersect, and where Morgan Freeman stands. The intensity of the shot is further increased by a small depth of view and the dynamic, diagonal lines that the fluroscent lights form.
Director David Fincher's Se7en ( shot by the brilliant cinematographer Darius Khondji, who also worked on The City of Lost Children, Alien Resurrection, Panic Room, and many more ) is an excellent film to illustrate The Rule of Thirds because of the huge number of still shots that was used in the film. Composition played an enormously important role here in creating tension and interest in the shots when the camera was locked down.
Example 2 : Gwyneth Paltrow lit by a soft rim light and composed within the hotspots. Her frame is supported by the various vertical lines formed by the 2 pillars and the windows in the background.
Example 3 : Brad Pitt framed within the intersecting lines, his pose furthered strengthened by the energetic vertical and horizontal lines formed by his posture.
If chance permits, take a closer look at the film and you will discover that the Rules of Thirds is used again, again and again throughout the entire movie:
Hundreds of other films and television series have been using this principle for decades, always watch for the subject placement in the frame. Of course, I'm not suggesting that if one should start applying the rule that he or she will instantaneous achieve breathtaking, beautiful results; as always it is a case of careful observation as well as a combination of other equally important ingredients like lighting, colour, framing, perspective, space, balance, depth, and leading lines that truly bring out the full effect, no doubt what David Fincher and Darius Khondji did this when shooting Se7en.
Too many points of interest in one section of your
You can still see the big shapes dominating the compositions, and the details being subservient to them through many levels.
Frank Frazetta has beautiful intricate details in his work, but his images also are stunning simple compositions. The whole image is a design. He became a master at composition and hierarchy - so much so that his work is almost a caricature of artistic control. Everything in his images fits so perfectly together that it's almost unnatural - even though he is using guidance from a great observation of nature.
The differences between Frazetta and good animation cartoonists are in individual skill and style, not so much in fundamentals. Frazetta can draw much better than most cartoonists (or anybody else). He also can control more levels of complex detail, and difficult elaborate structures - like anatomy.
Every character is drawn with a specific expression that reveals their character, and advances the story.
When planning your shots, remember the fundamentals of composition:
Negative / Positive Space
Avoid the Center
Staging in Groups
Hierarchy / Visual Balance
Form Over Detail
There is much you can learn from studying the many styles of composition practiced by master comicbook/comic strip artists and illustrators...
The Main Principles:
The purpose of all composition in comics, storyboarding, graphic design, illustration, or filmmaking is to achieve clarity in the visual layout and presentation of the static or moving image.
These four Chef-Boy-Ar-Dee commercials are good examples for Clarity.
Let's analyze the importance STORYBOARDING a short film or commercial.
I boiled story down to three "C's". The first "C" is "CLARITY".
This one is particularly important for a storyboard artist in the process of visualizing a script or idea because you are working within a very small box, in both the length of your film and your "production schedule". When making a short film clarity is of the utmost importance because you don't have time to explain a lot. If you're trying to make a film about an exotic planet where all the rules are different from Earth, by the time you've acclimated the viewer to your world and explained all the rules, your film is over.
So I always suggest that short film directors look at TV commercials for inspiration as how to tell a thirty-second story clearly and effeciently. Great commercials are made with a ton of economy, discipline and smart choices. Also, many times they start in a very familiar situation so that the audience gets oriented quickly and knows exactly where we are....then you can take a leap into "the fantastic", if that's what you want to do, or turn the everyday on it's head for comedic effect.
Clarity is tougher than most people realize I think, even professional storyboard artists and film directors have a hard time with this. It's easy, once you've thought through your idea, to think that your drawings are explaining what's inside your head, but the viewer doesn't have the benefit of hearing your thoughts. The drawings (and eventually, the animation) have to carry it all. That's a very tough limitation, and you need to keep your "objective eye" in check, so that you can step back and look at your work once in a while and see it the way fresh eyes will see it. Or find someone you trust and bounce it off them once in a while.
Okay, the next two "C's" are CHARACTER and CONFLICT. You've probably heard all this before, but it's all vitally important, and it's basically what the directors, writers and story artists spend all their time talking about in the story room while they craft movies at Disney, DreamWorks and Pixar.
Basically, the "CHARACTERS" part means that you should always strive to create characters that are original, entertaining, appealing, and that the audience can empathize with...meaning that they like the characters and are willing to root for them to get what they want. Then the audience will care when your characters end up in....
...CONFLICT, which of course is the heart of all storytelling. Without conflict you don't really have a story. In general, the bigger the conflict, the more that is at stake in your movie, the bigger the odds against your characters, the more interesting the story.
So if you have characters that the audience is actually rooting for, and conflict that seems almost insurmountable that they have to resolve to get what they want, then you have a great story.
Also, one last thing: a great story is one that ends by resolving the conflict in an unexpected way that the audience doesn't see coming. But I don't know how to make that idea start with a "C" so piss off.
The main point here, start small, someday... write then storyboard a short 30 sec film, storyboard several times, several different ways. Cut these images together in sequence. You'll see what huge challenge it can be to clearly and accurately tell the story in an effecient and entertaining way. Observe the simple use of various angles and framing techniques in this storyboard:
Animator Hank Ketcham created Dennis the Menace, he began the comic strip in the 50s and there was always great staging and thoughtful designs.
Traditional animators often talk about "economy of line"; describing as much as possible with the fewest lines, since every line has to be drawn over and over again. The same can be said for storyboard artists, it takes years of practice to become very effecient with your pencil or stylus pen, to visually display a layout of a shot, the weight of a pose, the emotion in a posture, the basic shapes and forms that make up the clear and effective composition of a scene with as few lines as possible.
Bill Peet's storyboards for the 1952 Disney short "Susie The Little Blue Coupe":
Take a look at progression number one, six shots of a couple talking in a restaurant. It's a basic progression that starts far away and neutral and ends up in an extreme close up featuring one character. The script may start out with some chit chat between the characters, and intensify to where in panel six the woman makes an important statement (ie: " I'm pregnant, or "I'm leaving you", or even "oh crap-- I left the oven on" etc). For all intents and purposes, this is correct. The shots slowly intensify to a visual climax.
Now look at progression 2; same six shots, but they've been jumbled around. For the script we're using in progression one, this would be considered wrong. The shots are all over the place. Sure the woman could say "I'm leaving you " in the close up in panel six, but what impact will it have after the extreme close up in panel one? How is it building intensity if we're going to a wide neutral shot, then close up , then out to medium shots?
Now the tricky part. With a different script, the second progression could work. Say the woman gets a phone call (before this scene) from the man and he says "Sally, the money's gone; meet me at the cafe".
With that intro, the script for progression two may go like this:
panel one: (woman) "what do you mean the money's gone?"
panel two: (man)(looking around nervously and whispering) " I don't know, the suitcase was empty"
panel three: (man) "we've got to find that money"
panel four: (woman) "all right but being here is making me nervous, they could be following us"
panel five: (man) " what do you think we should do?"
panel six: (woman) "we need to get out of town"
The most important bit is the woman's reaction to the money being gone and the ECU opens the scene with a punch. The second biggest bit is "we need to get out of town", so that gets a close up in panel six although not as big as panel one. The lines of them talking about being scared of being followed are in wider shots to emphasize the people around them and that they're in a public space.
This is a simple way to illustrate that a progression like number one, (although visually solid) isn't always the right one. When you are storyboarding, keep in mind that your shot progression will depend on what is happening in your scene. Make sure your shots best emphasize what's transpiring in the story.
We use thumbnails to work through our ideas. To get past our first ideas (remember - your first idea is always the worst and most
cliched idea. The first idea you think of is probably the first and most obvious idea that the audience will think of too!), and get on
to the ideas that count. The later ideas will be the good ones. They'll be the most inventive ideas, and the most original. But to reach
those ideas, you'll first have to work through the cliched ideas, right?
Thumbnails are, without a doubt, the fastest way to do that. The quickest road to a great idea, then, is through thumbnails! When you get a new scene, sit down and start doodling. Maybe it's just poses. Maybe it's working out full actions. Either way, you're quickly discovering what will work and what won't, and it's all on paper. Quick and dirty - that's the way to do it. Even use stick-man for your characters. Many of the best animators do their thumbnails with what is essentially a stick-man. As long as you can see where the character's hips are, the angle of the hips, the angle of the shoulders, angle of the head, the position of the limbs, and the placement within the frame - that's ALL you need to know at this point, and you shouldn't be worrying about any other details yet, generally speaking.
Remember - They are SUPPOSED to look rough. They are not meant to be pretty pictures. Don't spend or waste a lot of time making each thumbnail look like a piece of art. Don't waste time shading it in, drawing all the little details, etc. They're meant to be fast and sloppy. The entire point of doing thumbnails is that it saves you time.
How does it save you time? Well, if you do thumbnails as part of your planning process, then you can work through all of your ideas BEFORE sitting down in front of the computer, and it's inarguably much faster to doodle a little stick-man doing a pose than it is to pose him out in the computer.
So, the first rule is to stay rough, and the first *use* of thumbnails is to discover the best ideas for your shot.
The second use of thumbnails is to get fast feedback.
You can save yourself days of work (and a great deal of frustration) if you run your thumbnails past your lead or your director before diving into the actual scene. Nothing is more frustrating than spending 3 days blocking in something that you think is great only to find out, once the director gets a look at it, that you're doing something he doesn't like at all. It's always a great idea to run your thumbnails past them first, so you can save yourself the headache (and heartache!) of hearing the dreaded "start over" words from your director.
Here's a few quick methods for producing fast and dirty thumbnails.
2. Copy up a set of storyboard sheets so you don't have to spend all night drawing screen boxes.
3. Sketch in pencil so you can make changes easily, then use markers for photocopying. Feel free to use any medium you are happy with - professional storyboard artists use everything from magic markers to charcoal.
4. Scribble down short notes about what's happening in shot, what characters are saying and sound effects.
5. An overhead plan view of the location of the camera, actors and props can be helpful if you know the environment you are going to be working on.
6. Number your shots so that they can be quickly referred to on the shot list, during editing, or when you are pitching the boards to someone.
Drawing storyboards is an excellent way to keep motivated, to show you're organized and to let everyone else know what's going on in your head.
In Live-Action, storyboards
aren't there to constrain you. Just like the script they are there
to back you up during shooting. If everything starts flowing on set let
it happen. In the real situation you may see a new angle - go ahead,
shoot it. Get the shots you need by checking your storyboard and give
yourself the time and freedom to experiment.
In animation, a good way to thumbnail out some ideas is by doing a 'Beat Board'.
Beat Boards are sketches for the storyboard artist made to help them with gags, posing, stage direction elements and in some cases even art direction & layout.
Usually these are sketches that help to explore ideas about how to plan out certain shots.
Beat boards by Bill Wray:
Storyboards can be very detailed or very simple, they can have lots of panels for every shot to map out and choreograph the movement, or they can be very general - made to only capture the angle and composition of the shot.
Observe the clear staging practiced by Chuck Jones in "Baby Bugs Bunny" (1954)
Always search for and study great composition!
Study the works of the Godfather of Storyboarding - Bill Peet, here are samples of his Children's Book Illustrations:
ĺ─˙Hubertĺ─˘s Hair-Raising Adventureĺ─¨ - 1959 ĺ─˙Smokeyĺ─¨ - 1962 ĺ─˙The Pinkish, Purplish, Bluish Eggĺ─¨ - 1963 ĺ─˙Kermit the Hermitĺ─¨ - 1965 ĺ─˙Chester, the Worldly Pigĺ─¨ - 1965 ĺ─˙Farewell to Shady Gladeĺ─¨ - 1966 ĺ─˙Capyboppyĺ─¨ - 1966 ĺ─˙Jennifer and Josephineĺ─¨ - 1967 ĺ─˙Buford the Little Big Hornĺ─¨ - 1967 ĺ─˙Fly, Homer, Flyĺ─¨ - 1969 ĺ─˙The Whingdingdillyĺ─¨ - 1970 ĺ─˙The Wump Worldĺ─¨ - 1970 ĺ─˙How Droofus the Dragon Lost His Headĺ─¨ - 1971
Observe the power of the pyramid.
We all know about "poses" and "lines of action" and their massive importance in storybaording, but another aspect you should include in your thought process is the idea of creating solid shapes.
There is a very common shape that we all use often - the curve. Its nice to contrast between backwards and forwards curves in our poses, and also straights against curves. These are still lines (but not necessarily "lines of action"). One particular shape that you will notice in many great photographs, illustrations, paintings, comics and animation over and over again to help define strong poses and dynamic forms - is the pyramid. Look at these samples, and see where the triangular shapes can be found everywhere, and how they can create dynamic forms and intersecting lines to show power, weight, balance, stability, or elegance, while adding angles and contrast to any opposing forces within the image.
The Power of Postures
Dave Gibbons (the artist behind "Watchmen") once said: "I don't use action lines to describe what is happening in the frame; I use blood and posture to tell the viewer what is happening".
Posture is a powerful tool for artists, especially here when we're talking about static, sequential art. Posture can tell you all you need to know about what a figure is about to do, what it has just done or what has just happened to it (which obviously is more of a challenge in still drawings than, say, in animation).
The "language of posture" is a universal one - when an artist gets the pose just right, we all know exactly what the figure is doing. So it's clearly hard-wired into our brains. Why, then, is it so hard to learn how to draw figures so that their poses and posture impart their meanings clearly? Perhaps it is the endless combinations of expressions and body postures that make it such a challenging puzzle.
Chuck Jones poses:
These are just tiny examples of how posture can illustrate what is happening within a static drawing and how a character might be feeling... here are some more examples of the excellent use "posture"
"Hellboy" by Mike Mignola
The other part of it (the "blood" part of Dave Gibbons quote), isn't quite as important, any other kind of fluid or solid objects can be used to indicate movement within a static drawing (as well as to help tell the story). Just like posture, it can tell us what just happened, or what is happening right in the moment of the image.
The possibilities are limitless: if a character is smoking, the smoke from their cigarette could show us the path they traveled within the frame. If a character is bleeding, the trail of blood he leaves can show us the path he took. Clothes and hair can also help show us what direction the figure came from and how fast they are moving. These and many other examples can be experimented with to help your posture and other secondary factors to help the action of the shot when storyboarding.
Space & Form
Having a form lay flat against the ground plane (or come into contact with it) can definitely describe the space of your drawing without much else being necessary. A figure laying against the flat ground will tell you a lot about the space by the way the parts of the body overlap one another and move away from the viewer in perspective. Here, the way the body hits the flat ground and the way it squashes against the flat form of the floor gives a solid feeling to the space and feels like there's definitely some depth to the scene. Plus, having the Dad overlap Dennis is helpful to sell what's in front of what (see the last post to read more about overlapping objects to create space).
Similarly to this, you can achieve a nice feeling of space by simply having your character's feet planted firmly in perspective. This can convey a very convincing sense of space when it is done right.
Obviously the same thing applies to anything which is firmly planted on the ground plane and is drawn with perspective that looks convincing. Or even an object that's up in the air.
Just planting different areas in your picture at different heights can be effective. Putting the planes that are further away higher up in the frame is the simplest way to get a sense of space in your drawing.
We all think of having forms shrink as they head off towards the horizon, but don't forget you can give your drawing perspective that recedes in the vertical plane, instead of the horizontal, when appropriate.
The blank areas don't always have to be white; they can be black silhouettes instead, of course. They could even be areas of grey tone as well.
Obviously this is a useful design principle: to balance complex areas against empty areas. It would be meaningless to put one complicated pattern next to another, or to put an empty space next to another. The two types of areas only mean something when balanced by each other for contrast.
Return of the Jedi:
Samples of art by Nicholas Kole, see how the shapes, forms, colors and lighting create appealing compositions.
Observe Mark Kennedy's Storyboards for Tangled:
How and When to Cut
Motivating the camera is a simple technique of using visual cues to set up a cut or camera-move and in doing so, ease the audience into a new shot or new information.
Use a character's eye line to motivate a cut. It helps ease the audience through the cut and into new information. (While also putting us directly in the character's shoes.)
The idea is to create as much continuity within the sequence as possible, making everything clear and easy to follow.
So as per the above sequence, ways to motivate the camera;
- Using a Character's eyeline/P.O.V.
- Having a character move on screen and adjusting the camera accordingly.
- Having a character exit frame.
There are many other ways, for instance; --- Having a character enter frame.
Ultimately what it comes down to, specifically for 'cutting', is the fact that a 'cut' is not natural, it doesn't happen in real life (unless you take really long blinks). Obviously we have seen enough film/television that we are accustomed to 'cutting', nevertheless, anything you can do to smooth out the transition will only help create and maintain the continuity of your sequence.
These examples revolve around motivating the camera, and explores more "what they are saying visually".
These examples are all slight variations of the same scene, each exploring a different approach in regards to the progression of information that is revealed to the audience, and consequently the effect it has on them. Ultimately, it all depend on what the script calls for or what is necessary of the scene to determine which of the following (if any) would be suitable.
The most important thing to take away from this concept of 'motivating the camera', is just to try and be conscious of the decisions you are making in your storyboards. Try to understand what you are actually saying visually, what information you are revealing to the audience, when is this information os being revealed, and what effect it will have on them. Thinking about these things as you board can really help enhance a sequence and 'sell' an idea in the storyboard stage.
Staging & Posing Review
Push your poses, express the body language, create clear silouettes.
Composition is all about leading the viewers eyes to where you want then to look.
Visual clarity in storyboarding begins the process of creating a layout on which to build what will be the final moving images on screen.
The Worse Day Ever
I have to let you go Scampers. Pa thinks you're too wild and dangerous...
He doesn't understand. You were just barking at that mean ol' grizzly bear.
< sniff > I love you Scampers. I'll never forget you.
< sniff sniff > Goodbye...
No Scampers! No! Don't follow me!
Stay! You can't come back!
Dangit Scampers! Get outta here!
Go on!!! Git!
< thump >
You have to leave!
< STAB >
< CLAMP!!! >
I just heard Fox canceled Arrested Development.
AAARGGHH!! I'M SO BORED!
Wait a sec! I think that movie I love starts streaming today on Netflix!
Yep! Here it is! Awesome!
Hey Honey! What's the password for our Netflix account?
The password is the date of our wedding anniversary.
Conveying light and shading in your boards can be very important to amplify the mood of the scene, creating strong compositions, and allows you to direct the viewers attention in dramatic ways.
The light and dark patterns don't always have to make absolute sense, when it comes to giving form and depth to objects, you can fake them (to a certain extent) to get the results you want.
Observe the effects of lighting in these Scooby-Doo Digital Storyboards by Anson Jew:
Study these rough layouts from The Iron Giant, notice the lighting guides with 3D arrows and how the shapes of shadows and highlights are blocked in to form the focal points with tones and contrast:
Storyboards for Live-Action Commercials by Antonio Santamaria:
2D Animated Short Film Storyboards by Sandro Cleuzo:
Composition in the art of film is never static; it is a process of continuous change created by the control of its three basic elements:
1. Placement of people and objects within the frame:
-The important factor is relationship.
-Large foreground objects can attract or divert attention depending on how they are used.
-A full-face CU in sharp focus in the foreground will divert attention from a soft focus full figure in the background.
-A figure in soft focus in the foreground can occupy more than half the frame and yet attract less attention than a smaller figure in the background.
-The extended image; the overlapping of person and objects with the margin of the frame, can also be used to enlarge the audiences perception.
2. Movement of people and objects within a fixed frame:
-Whenever there is movement within a frame, the composition changes. The motion picture is a constant flow of ever changing images. The composition of the cinematic image must be considered in a different way to photography.
3. Movement of the frame itself:
-Perhaps the most important basic element of cinematic composition is the ability of the frame itself to move.
-The mobility of the camera enables the filmmaker to change his vantage point in an instant. It allows action. Even more importantly, it enables the filmmaker to change the character of the image as the action evolves by simply moving the camera in, out and around the players.
-Few filmmakers have ever used composition to its full potential. The concept of the ever-changing image seems difficult to execute because it involves the three basic elements of composition, all of which must be controlled simultaneously. The filmmaker, unlike the photographer and the theater director, creates his visual compositions in a flexible, ever changing arena.
-It is through the arrangement and control of all visual elements that the filmmaker can control the thoughts and emotions of the audience. A scene comprised of elements that are just there, permits the audiences' attention to wander and lapse.
Observe this study of shot compositions from the first Indiana Jones movie:
Foregrounds and Backgrounds -